GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE

Kazakhstan is officially a secular state. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan that was adopted at the republican referendum on August 30, 1995, the Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the supreme representative body of the Republic performing legislative functions.

The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan

We, the people of Kazakhstan, united by a common historic fate, creating a state on the indigenous Kazakh land, considering ourselves a peace-loving and civil society, dedicated to the ideals of freedom, equality and concord, wishing to take a worthy place in the world community, realizing our high responsibility before the present and future generations, proceeding from our sovereign right, accept this Constitution.

Preamble of the Constitution

President of the Republic of Kazakhstan

President of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the head of the state, its highest official, determining the main directions of internal and foreign policy and representing Kazakhstan within the country and in international relations. President of the Republic — the symbol and guarantor of the unity of the people and state power, inviolability of the Constitution, human rights and freedoms of citizens. Under constitutional law, the President is elected based on the universal, equal and direct elective franchise, through a secret vote for a term of the seven years.

The Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan

The Parliament of Kazakhstan is the supreme representative body of the country, which performs legislative functions. The Parliament consists of two chambers: The Senate and The Majilis, which operate on a standing basis.

The Senate is made up of deputies who are elected, two from each region, the cities of republican importance and the capital of the country at a joint meeting of deputies of republican importance and the capital of the country at a joint meeting of deputies of representative bodies from these administrative units. Deputies are elected on an indirect elective franchise, through a secret ballot. Half of the deputies elected are reelected every two years. Seven deputies of the Senate are appointed by the President of the country for the term of the Senate’s authority. The last convocation was elected on 17th September 1999. The Majilis comprises 77 deputies, 67 of whom are elected from one-mandate territorial voting districts, which are set up taking account of the administrative and territorial divisions of Kazakhstan. Ten deputies are elected on the basis of party lists, under a proportionate representation system, and on the territory of the common national voting district. Deputies are elected on the basis of a universal, equal and direct elective franchise, through a secret vote. The last convocation was elected on 19th September and 3d October 2004.

The Parliament passes legislative acts: laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan, decrees of the Parliament, Senate and Majilis which have the binding force on the entire territory of Kazakhstan.

A deputy of the Parliament swears an oath to the people of Kazakhstan. The term of the office of Senators is six years and that of Majilis deputies five years.

Courts and Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Justice is administered only by courts in Kazakhstan.

The judicial branch of government is executed through civil, criminal and other forms of legal procedures. Criminal legal procedures are also executed with the participation of a jury.

The Supreme Court and local courts make up the courts of the country. In 2001 the Economic Court was established. The Supreme Court of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the highest judicial authority entitled to administer civil, criminal and other cases, to supervise the activities of courts and to provide comments on legal practice issues.

The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, presiding chambers, and judges of the Supreme Court are nominated by the president and elected by the Senate. The presiding judges of regional courts and other courts of equal status, presiding chambers, and judges, are appointed to office by the President of Kazakhstan upon the recommendation of the Supreme Court Council of the country.

The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Article 75, 81, 82.

The Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan

The government exercises executive authority of the Republic of Kazakhstan, head the executive system and provide guidance to them. In its activities it is responsible to the President and accountable to the Parliament of the country. It comprises the Prime Minister, his deputies, ministers, heads of other central bodies of executive power.

Government members take an oath to the people and the President of Kazakhstan.

The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Article 64, 65.

Local Government and Self-Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Local state government is formed by representative and executive organs. Maslikhats are elected by people, based on a universal, equal and direct elective franchise, through a secret ballot, for the term of four years. Executive organs are included in the united system of executive organs of the country. They are headed by Akims, representatives of the President and Government of the country. They are appointed by the President. Local self-government is recognised for independent solution of local issues by the population.