By the second half of the 15th century a process of consolidation had begun among the nomadic peoples living on the territory of modern Kazakhstan. This process evolved from their world-view and style of life. A short time later, the first Kazakh states were formed, and by the beginning of the 16th century a united a Kazakh nation had emerged. The ethnonym "Kazakh” in old Turkic meant «free, independent” and fully reflected the character of a people who had long aspired to live independently.

On the whole the process of formation of the Kazakh ethnic national group came to completion in XIV-XV centuries. Kazakh Khanate shaped up in the middle of the XVth century. Extension of estates, consolidation of statehood, active foreign policy pursued by the First Khans, particularly by Kasymkhan in early XVIth century, later on gave way to ever growing intestine wars and mass roamings-off of people.

The aggravated economic and political situation generated the issue of joining Russia, a process that lasted nearly 150 years.

In 1939–1941 Kazakhstan is transformed into a major basis for production of non-ferrous metals, coal, oil, it becomes a region of developed agriculture.

In 1941–1945 Kazakhstan comes to be envolved in the WWII, more particularly in the Great Patriotic war against the invasion of fascist Germany. In this period practically all Kazakhstani enterprises put out only defence produce. Major industrial facilities and cultural establishments are being evacuated to Kazakhstan from western and central areas of the USSR. The war years are filled with the selfless heroic labour of millions of Soviet people in industries and agriculture. In WWII Kazakhstan lost nearly 425,000 people. The Republic played host to hundreds of thousands of evacuated people.

In 1954 top leaders of the country launch a campaign of massive development of virgin and fallow lands which entails a new influx of people arriving from other republics of the USSR, they boost up housing construction, that of cultural and mass facilities.

The years of the 50s — 80s are those coloured with the struggle between the party-and-state bureaucracy and the people. This 30-year span is characterized by an offensive against the bureaucracy (so called „Khruschev“s thaw») and the bureaucratic retaliation (L.I. Brezhnev, K.U. Chernenko) which brought about a stagnation in the Kazakhstani society.

The course of social and economic transformations announced by Mikhail Gorbachov when he became the topmost leader of the USSR, betrayed, initially, the same tendency as the efforts of his predecessors who did their utmost — when ascending to power — to present themselves as exceedingly active democratic reformers. The system of social, economic and political actions aimed at reforming the society remained in history as a notorious «perestroika».

Elections of the USSR people"s deputies held in spring 1989 proved to be very important in context of eventual transition to genuine democracy. For the first ever time they were conducted on the basis of alternative nomination and voting accompanied by political competition.

The day of August 19, 1991 — the day of the abortive attempt of a coup. President Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan addresses the people of Kazakhstan. They issue Presidential Decrees «On the formation of the Security Council of the Kazakh SSR», «On the transition of state-owned enterprises and organizations of Union subordination into that of the Government of the Kazakh SSR», «On establishing the gold and diamond fund of the Kazakh SSR», «On closing of the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing grounds», etc.

At the moment major world companies open their representations in the Republic, we witness an intensive increase in the number of joint ventures, they elaborate and implement projects of joint development of natural resources and processing raws and materials, introduction of advanced technologies in the agrarian sphere, etc.

Tremendous natural resources of Kazakhstan, social and political stability in the Republic make this region one of the most attractive objects of capital investments among other republics of the late Soviet Union.

Republic of Kazakhstan has become a full-fledged equal member of the world community to enjoy universal recognition and support of absolute majority of the states of the world. As of today Kazakhstan has been recognized by 113 states including 105 ones that maintain diplomatic relations with Kazakhstan.

Today we witness consolidation of interaction, extension of cooperation with most authoritative international agencies. Among them is the UNO, the European Community, the International and European Banks for Reconstruction and Development, the International Monetary Fund, the IAEA, the IFRCRCS, the UNICEF, the UNESCO, the WHO, etc. The Republic has acceeded to more than 40 international conventions, it has signed almost 400 multilateral and over 700 bilateral agreements and treaties.

In 1997 there has been adopted a decision on transferring the capital of the country from Almaty to Astana, the circumstance conditioned by geopolitical and economic considerations of Kazakhstan"s development.